Hydrodynamic approaches:
analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), light scattering (dynamic and static), small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS-SANS), microscale thermophoresis (MST), electrophoretic mobility, precision viscometry, …

fluorescence, infrared, circular dichroism (CD), Raman, electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; for aims other than structure determination, e.g. the study of conformational dynamics and interactions), …

Real-time biosensing:
based on: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR), interferometry (biolayer (BLI), dual polarization (DPI) or backscattering (BSI)), …

Fast and ultra-fast kinetics:
using for instance stopped-flow and temperature jump devices

isothermal (ITC) and differential scanning (DSC), differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF)

Single molecule approaches:
atomic force microscopy (AFM), single-molecule FRET (smFRET), optical tweezers

Structural mass spectrometry:
ion mobility MS (IM-MS), chemical cross-linking coupled with MS (CX-MS),hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS (HDX-MS)